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Comparing Programming Languages is a very complex thing and ... 2 mths

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Comparing Programming Languages is a very complex thing and so there are many graphical illustration/jokes trying to symbolize Programming language. I found few and I am starting this article with those. programming languages comparison funny In simple words, Programming Language empowers human to instruct and control machine. So, it is natural that there will be so many languages which try to make this process more powerful and simple. For this very reason there are hundreds of programming languages, many of those programming languages are now out of active use, few are going to be obsolete in coming years and then there are languages which is going to continue and prove its usage in coming years and then there are new programming language fighting for it acceptance. This article going to present the trends of top Programming Languages which will continue in the coming year 2020. To predict the trend of the programming language in 2020 this article uses data from authentic surveys, various collected statistics, search results and salary trends according to programming languages. This article will help the new learner to pick a programming language to learn and for expert, it will help to decide either to switch to another language or to continue with his expertise language. In the next section, I have prepared two tables which summarize the popularity trend of Programming Languages in the last five years (2015-19). The data is taken from Stackoverflow popularity survey 2015-19. For a clear and accurate understanding, the programming languages are divided into two groups, first, languages which have origin before 2000 and the second group has languages which came after 2000. The selection of 2000 as the boundary is just random but very helpful to understand the programming trend under these two groups. The table also lists origin year and main or documented purpose of these programming/scripting languages. Language Origin 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Main Purpose Javascript 1995 54.4% 55.4% 62.5% 71.5% 67.8% Web development, Dynamic contents, Client and Server side Java 1995 37.4% 36.3% 39.7% 45.4% 41.1% Enterprise Application Bash/Shell 1971/79 – – – 40.4% 36.6% Automation and system admin Python 1991 23.8% 24.9% 32.0% 37.9% 41.7% General purpose PHP 1995 29.7% 25.9% 28.1% 31.4% 26.4% Web development, Server-side C++ 1980/83 20.6% 19.4% 22.3% 24.6% 23.5% General purpose C 1972 16.4% 15.5% 19.0% 22.1% 20.6% General Purpose, Low-level programming Ruby 1995 8% 8.9% 9.1% 10.3% 8.4% Web development R 1993 – – 4.5% 6.0% 5.8% Statistical Computing Objective-C 1986 7.8% 6.5% 6.4% 7.3% 4.8% General purpose OBSERVATIONS: There is a decrease in the popularity of all languages from 2018 to 2019 except Python. PYTHON Python is the only language continuously on rising since last five years. It is a general purpose language, so someone wants to learn just one programming in 2020 and want to cover more area of software development then Python could be chosen. JAVA Java was on rising but fall in 2019, the reason could Kotlin gaining popularity on the Android platform. Java is a good choice for a programming language but now it is under Oracle and Google is promoting Kotlin so it is in the conflicted zone. As a matter of fact still, the large number of the company is using Java and going to continue with Java due to its developers base, framework, and legacy application. C/C++ C and C++ are still holding with approx 20% and it will be there due to its inherent features and legacy system. JAVASCRIPT JavaScript popularity can be attributed to the growth of popular JavaScript library and framework like node.js, etc. JS is the language for the dynamic website and this going to be top for coming years because of its active development, support from Mozilla and penalty of libraries and frameworks. So, if someone wants to be web development, javascript is a must. R R is gaining popularity in recent years and reason would be growth and popularity of data analysis. It is used by data scientist but again much behind in comparison to Python which has established as general-purpose languages and enjoy active developers with lots of data science libraries and modules. So, one can prefer Python over R if they have to choose only one otherwise if wanted carrier in Data Sciences then learning both will a good option. RUBY Like PHP, Ruby is also facing tough competition from JavaScript and even Python to establish as back-end web development programming language. So, again for web development javascript and Python (server-side (Flask, Django etc.) would be a good choice and will offer more domain flexibility than Ruby. PHP There is a sharp decline in PHP popularity in 2019 and it can be traced back to server-side acceptance of javascript and Python. So, if someone wants to go to server-side web development then still PHP is a good choice with a large number of popular framework like CakePHP, Codeigniter etc., otherwise choosing a general-purpose programming language would be better. OBJECTIVE-C Objective-C was the main language for Apple’s software such as MacOS, iOS etc. before Apple moved to Swift language. So this transition is reflected in the popularity of both languages, i.e. there is a fall in popularity for Objective-C and the popularity of Swift is rising. So, again if someone wants to be a developer for Apple’s products then Swift should be the language of choice. Language Origin 2017 2018 2019 Swift 2014 6.5% 8.3% 6.6% Go 2009 4.3% 7.2% 8.2% Kotlin 2011 Google Support 4.7% 6.4% Scala 2003 3.6% 4.5% 3.8% Juila 2012 – – – C# 2001 34.1% 34.4% 31.0% Rust 2010 – – 3.2% Clojure 2007 – – 1.4% OBSERVATIONS: SWIFT Swift has replaced the Objective-C as the main language for Apple-related software and application. Since it is supported and promoted by Apple so there is an increase in popularity since its inception and as Apple is going to continue with it so if someone is looking for Apple-specific development platform then Swift is going to be a must-know programming language. This is mostly vendor and product-specific language with very less usage outside Apple’s eco-system. GO Go (Golang) is getting popularity as maintain, use and promoted by Google. The motivation of Go development was to address criticism of some of the popular languages and keeping the best of them in one place. Since 2017, Go is moving upward in popularity and with Google support, it is going to enjoy this in coming years. Google is also making Go as a primary language for new projects and replacing other languages with Go, this trend going to make useful and important to learn in coming years so one can pick Go as a new programming language. KOTLIN Kotlin is being offered as an alternative of Java for Android development and again it is supported and promoted by Google so it is also picking up by developers and gaining popularity in recent years. So, with the growth of Android, support of Google and with clean and short syntax it is going to be a choice of Android application developers and is a good choice to learn for Android App developer. Kotlin going to be shine as a prominent programming environment for Android development. SCALA Scala tries to establish as an alternative to Java but didn’t get very well among developers. It doesn’t have big support from any multi-national company, perceive as functional languages and dependency on JVM doesn’t provide much scope to rise in popularity. There could be steady growth but very slow and surely not a language to learn as a beginner. JULIA Julia aims to bring the speed of ‘C’ and simplicity of Python but it is strange that didn’t found any popularity in Stackoverflow survey but gaining popularity among data science domain and being seen as a challenger for R and Python in long run. Surely, there will be growth in Julia but still, Python or R is better for job and growth. C# C# is the language for the .NET framework and developed by Microsoft. Its popularity is approx constant over past years and going to continue with a similar trend. This is vendor-specific language so one can pick this language if want to work in the Microsoft development environment. Recently, Microsoft has open-sourced the .NET so there would be some upward trend but again it is vendor-specific so there won’t be much affected. RUST Rust, Clojure etc. are languages which have a user-base but not so popular so surely not going to have an upward swing in popularity.

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